Turkish coffee is unique to the coffee world in a few different ways. First, it requires the finest grind (finer than espresso). It’s also the only coffee that ever gets boiled (coffee is supposed to be brewed at 180F).
Each pot contains 4 pours, the first being most desired. This video shows all 4 pours going into one cup. The technique of the pour is such that the coffee is very close to its boiling point when it’s poured.
The coffee is poured from altitude to aerate the brew. When the bubbles reach the surface and rapidly cool, proteins from the coffee change their structure and hold shape, hence foam. All of these aim for a steamy, foamy, aromatic cup of coffee.
Simple explanation: The pan is at a boiling temperature. They put sand in the pan as a heat absorber. So when they slide the mug across the sand (filled with coffee beans) it instantly is boiled, and heated.